spacer
home > ebr > spring 2018 > scratching the surface
PUBLICATIONS
European Biopharmaceutical Review

Scratching the Surface

The cell surface membrane – or plasma membrane (PM) – surrounds the cell providing the necessary boundaries between the cytoplasm and the extracellular environment. This thin, semi-permeable membrane plays a vital role in protecting the integrity of the cell through selective movement of substances passing in and out. It also constitutes the base for the attachment of cytoskeleton and cell walls – for bacteria and plants – thereby providing and maintaining the shape of the cell. Moreover, the PM allows cells to recognise one another and transmits signalling processes.

The building blocks of the cell membrane are lipids, proteins, and their associated sugars. The composition and relative concentration of these molecules define the membrane function and vary among different organisms, cell types, and cell states. Based on the fluid mosaic model introduced in 1972 by Singer and Nicolson, the PM is a mosaic of components – primarily phospholipids, cholesterol, proteins, and associated carbohydrates – moving freely and fluidly in the plane of the membrane. Although it was thought that the distribution of components is uniform, current data suggest that the cell membrane is highly and tightly organised in heterogeneous microdomains: the maintenance of this heterogeneity is associated with a large energetic cost indicating its significance (1). In support of this hypothesis, perturbations to the lipid composition of the membrane that disrupt the proposed compartmentalisation drastically reduce the efficiency of signal transduction (1).

Introducing the Surfaceome

Although lipids and glycans are key components of the PM, the focus of the present review is on the collection of proteins that resides at the cell surface or surfaceome. Surface proteins can be physically embedded in the lipid bilayer (integral), be anchored to the phospholipids or integral proteins at either side of the cell membrane (peripheral), or even associate to the membrane only under specific conditions. The surfaceome constitutes roughly 50% of the PM mass and exhibits a variety of functions that include transport, enzymatic activity, signal transduction, cell-cell interaction, and attachment to the cytoskeleton or the extracellular matrix (2). Different classes of surface proteins carry out these tasks for example channel and carrier proteins, enzymes, receptors, cell recognition, and cell adhesion proteins. Given the range of functions carried out by surface proteins, it is not surprising that roughly 30% of predicted open reading frames in a typical genome encode membrane and PM proteins (2).

Read full article from PDF >>

Rate this article You must be a member of the site to make a vote.  
Average rating:
0
     

There are no comments in regards to this article.

spacer
Dr Maria Pavlou studied biology at the University of Athens, Greece, and upon graduation moved to Canada to pursue her postgraduate studies. In January 2014, Maria obtained her PhD from the Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology at the University of Toronto, Canada, under the supervision of Dr EP Diamandis, with a focus on the development of a novel proteomic prognostic signature for breast cancer patients. After her PhD, she joined the lab of Professor Dr Bernd Wollscheid at the Institute of Molecular Systems Biology at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, as a post-doctoral fellow. Her research focused on understanding the signalling mechanisms employed by the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes to adapt and infect the human host. In September 2017, Maria joined Dualsystems Biotech as Senior Scientist where she is focusing on identifying targets and offtargets of orphan ligand on the surface of living cells using a chemoproteomic approach.

Dr Paul Helbling completed his Master’s degree in biology at the University of Zurich, Switzerland, and obtained his PhD in developmental biology at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich. After his PhD, he worked at the Foundation for Cardiovascular Research and organised clinical studies according to Good Clinical Practice. Paul moved on to MDS Pharma Services where he held various positions in the Good Laboratory Practice (GLP)-compliant facilities, finally responsible for the ligand-binding group that specialised in the analysis of biologics and anti-drug antibodies. His next position was in business development at the Good Manufacturing Practicecompliant facilities of Solvias, responsible for southern Europe and Germany and opening new market territories in Turkey. Paul then became Head of Business Development at IBR, a GLPcompliant service provider specialising in cell-based assays. Finally, he joined the team at Dualsystems as CEO that is focusing on identifying targets and off-targets on the living cells using LC-MS/MS.
spacer
Dr Maria Pavlou
spacer
spacer
spacer
Dr Paul Helbling
spacer
spacer
Print this page
Send to a friend
Privacy statement
News and Press Releases

Charles River Laboratories Announces Extended Relationship with The Michael J. Fox Foundation

WILMINGTON, Mass.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Charles River Laboratories International, Inc. (NYSE: CRL) today announced an extension of its long-standing collaboration with The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research (MJFF), a leading organization working to support the diagnosis and treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Since 2011, Charles River and MJFF have worked together to accelerate the discovery of therapies for PD. This latest extension includes grants from MJFF to support two projects:
More info >>

White Papers

PROTEIN:PROTEIN INTERACTION ANALYSIS

IBA GmbH

Groth et al., 2007 and Jasencakova et al., 2010 Protein:protein-interactions (PPI) govern almost all important processes in living organisms. Thus, their rapid and accurate determination and investigation is a major challenge in life sciences. The extremely efficient and fast One-STrEP (Twin-Strep) system is suitable for the isolation of functional protein complexes and subsequent mass spectrometry analysis leads to the identification of protein complex components (Junttila et al., 2005) as it is shown in the following studies.
More info >>

 
Industry Events

SMi’s 9th Annual Biosimilars & Biobetters Conference

25-27 September 2018, Copthorne Tara Hotel, London, UK

Following the success of our previous events in both London and the US, Biosimilars and Biobetters UK 2018, SMi deliver a stellar speaker line-up and bring together a global audience of biosimilar experts to discuss the latest developments and future of the rapidly evolving and expanding biosimilars market.
More info >>

 

 

©2000-2011 Samedan Ltd.
Add to favourites

Print this page

Send to a friend
Privacy statement