spacer
home > ebr > autumn 2019 > vax populi
PUBLICATIONS
European Biopharmaceutical Review

Vax Populi



Imagine a world before vaccines… communicable diseases extracted a massive toll in human suffering and economic losses. Now, in our lifetime, global polio eradication efforts have wiped out the disease in the EU, US, and other developed regions. The number of reported cases has been reduced to 33 globally in 2018. Smallpox is gone. The last known case was observed in 1977, and the overall number of tetanus cases has declined since widespread vaccination in the 1950s, although it still accounts for over 5% of neonatal mortality worldwide. At the middle of the last century measles, mumps, and varicella (chickenpox) were common childhood diseases, even in advanced economies. Now that the DPT vaccine is a standard for all young children, most of us living in the EU or US have never actually known anyone who suffered from diphtheria, whooping cough, or tetanus. Not so with influenza, which recurs annually and almost all of us have experienced at some point in our lives.

Today, with modern vaccines available, WHO estimates that immunisation prevents about 3 million deaths from infectious disease per year. For example, global measles mortality has decreased by 80%, yet there’s still a long way to go – 20 million children under one year of age have not received basic vaccines. Many industrialised nations have achieved vaccination rates of 99%. However, there are still regions with alarmingly low rates of vaccination in developing countries, where economic hardship and civil strife impede the progress of universal vaccination programmes. The spread of infectious disease through a population is dependent on the fraction of individuals that have immunity either through prior exposure or through vaccination. As not every individual can be vaccinated, for medical reasons, it is important to achieve a vaccination rate in the population that is sufficient to suppress the spread of contagion. When this threshold vaccination rate is achieved, the protective effect on a population as a whole is called ‘herd immunity’.

The exact threshold of herd immunity depends on the virulence of the disease and on the number of social contacts. For a disease such as measles, where one contagious individual could infect more than a dozen others, herd immunity would need a 90- 95% vaccination rate. Another less contagious disease like polio would require around 80-85%. Success in this regard protects individuals at risk – young babies, immune-compromised individuals, or people who are not able to receive or tolerate immunisation.

Read full article from PDF >>

Rate this article You must be a member of the site to make a vote.  
Average rating:
0
     

There are no comments in regards to this article.

spacer
Emile Bellott is a member of the EBR Industry Advisory Board, a graduate of the Harvard Business School, US, and an industry consultant with experience in the biotech and biopharma industry.
Print this page
Send to a friend
Privacy statement
News and Press Releases

Introducing Signant Health [Formerly CRF Bracket] and the Industry’s Most Comprehensive Patient-Centric Suite for Clinical Research

Philadelphia and London – June 10, 2019: CRF Bracket, formed by the 2018 merger of CRF Health and Bracket, today launched as Signant Health (signanthealth.com). Uniting eCOA, eConsent, Patient Engagement, IRT, Clinical Supplies and Endpoint Quality into the industry’s most comprehensive patient-centric suite, Signant makes it easier to participate in – and sites and study teams to run – clinical trials. This intense focus on the patient experience, deep therapeutic area expertise and global operational scale enable sponsors and CROs to extend the reach of drug development, expand patient opportunities and improve data quality.
More info >>

White Papers

Crunch Time: The Impact of Serialisation Requirements on Packaging Operations

PCI Pharma Services

The deadlines for including unique product identifiers on prescription drugs is putting a strain on multiple parts of the industry, much of which is ill-prepared to meet the target. Here, we look to the experience of a company that is ahead of the curve for lessons on how to manage and ease the transition to serialisation.
More info >>

 
Industry Events

2020 Avoca Quality and Innovation Summit

3-4 June 2020, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

The 2020 Avoca Quality and Innovation Summit will take place 3-4 June 2020, in Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
More info >>

 

 

©2000-2011 Samedan Ltd.
Add to favourites

Print this page

Send to a friend
Privacy statement