spacer
home > ebr > spring 2007 > cells, gels and alginates
PUBLICATIONS
European Biopharmaceutical Review

Cells, Gels and Alginates

As alginate-based products become increasingly accepted, Are Kristiansen, Therese Andersen and Jan Egil Melvik at NovaMatrix speculate upon the likelihood that more and more will find their way onto the market

Alginates were first described by British chemist Stanford in 1881 (1), and are the most abundant polysaccharide in cell walls and intercellular space of brown algae (seaweed and kelp). Alginates are also produced by bacteria such as Azotobacter vinelandii and some Psedumonas species. They are a family of linear molecules composed of (1,4)-linked β-D-mannuronate (M) and α-L-guluronate (G), where the relative content of M and G is source-dependent. Alginates have been used for several decades in the food and pharmaceutical industries as emulsifying, thickening, film-forming and gelling agents, and they are also well-known in the biomedical and biotechnology arena. This article gives a brief review of the technology of cell immobilisation in alginates, and identifies and discusses new strategies and developments in the field. Furthermore, the aspects of standardisation and regulatory acceptance of alginates are discussed.

BASIC ALGINATE CHEMISTRY

The relative amount of M and G and their sequential arrangement along the polymer chain varies widely depending on the source. The monomer residues are distributed along the polymer chain in a block pattern, where homopolymeric blocks of G-residues, homopolymeric blocks of M-residues, and alternating sequences of M and G-units (MG-blocks) co-exist (see Figure 1). The content and distribution of the two monomers largely determines the physicochemical properties of alginates. Commercial alginates derived from seaweed and kelp typically have G-contents in the range of 30-70 per cent, and number-average Gblock lengths (excluding single Gs), NG>1 of 4-20. The latter parameter largely determines the ability of alginates to form strong gels through interaction with multivalent cations. pKa-values of M- and G-units are 3.38 and 3.65 respectively, therefore, alginates are polyanions at physiological conditions. The polymer chain length of commercially available alginates is in the range of 30-500kDa. The molecular weight strongly affects the viscosity of a solution containing alginate.


Read full article from PDF >>

Rate this article You must be a member of the site to make a vote.  
Average rating:
0
     

There are no comments in regards to this article.

spacer

Are Kristiansen holds a PhD in Biopolymer Chemistry and is R&D Manager at NovaMatrix with a background and long experience in the fields of biopolymer chemistry and technology. He has previously held various positions in the company in R&D, process development, and commercial development.

Therese Andersen holds a MSc in Biopolymer Chemistry. She is an R&D Scientist at NovaMatrix and is a strong contributor and inventor in the development of new biostructures and biopolymer technologies.

Jan Egil Melvik holds a PhD in Biophysics and is Senior Scientist at NovaMatrix, with much experience of biopolymer technologies, including development of new biostructures and cell immobilisation technologies. He has been a key driver in the development and innovation of alginates.

spacer
Are Kristiansen
spacer
spacer
spacer
Therese Andersen
spacer
spacer
spacer
Jan Egil Melvik
spacer
spacer
Print this page
Send to a friend
Privacy statement
News and Press Releases

Surge of Indian biosimilars market forecast in 2019

16th April 2019: New data from CPhI shows that, despite ongoing reputational challenges, India’s biologics market is set for robust growth in 2019 driven by biosimilars production. The India specific findings from CPhI’s bio league tables predict strong ‘bio growth potential’ in India throughout 2019 in the build-up to the 13th edition of CPhI India 2019, which will take place at the India Expo Centre in Delhi NCR.
More info >>

White Papers

Bio/Pharmaceutical Methods: Do your Analytical Methods Hold Up to Regulatory Scrutiny?

Eurofins BioPharma Product Testing

As FDA guidelines evolve and drug products on the market begin to age, bio/pharmaceutical manufacturers face scrutiny of the original methods used to support these products. Therefore, manufacturers must re-evaluate these methods to ensure they comply with current FDA expectations. Some manufacturers are even facing consent decrees imposed by the agency requiring them to bring methods up to current standards within a specified timeframe. This exercise requires significant amounts of time and resources, which many manufacturers do not have since they are focused on getting their next products to market. For that reason, some clients have been turning to Eurofins Lancaster Laboratories for support.
More info >>

 
Industry Events

The Universe of Pre-filled Syringes and Injection Devices

22-23 October 2019, The Swedish Exhibition & Congress Centre Gothia Towers Hotel

PDA’s Universe of Pre-filled Syringes and Injection Devices has become the must-attend meeting for everyone working in the field, and is now the world’s largest conference on this subject
More info >>

 

 

©2000-2011 Samedan Ltd.
Add to favourites

Print this page

Send to a friend
Privacy statement